The Impact of Alkaloids Structures from NaturalCompounds on Public Health
Keywords:nicotine, morphine, papaverine, alkaloids, caffeine
AbstractAlkaloids are organic heterocycle substances with nitrogen, of plant origin, with basic character, arising from the secondary metabolism of plants, which give characteristic reactions and exert an effect on animal bodies, most often of a toxic nature. Alkaloids have at least one atom of heterocycle nitrogen, in which case it is often tertiary, less frequently quaternary. The heterocycles can condense among themselves or with other cycles in such a way that alkaloid molecules may become poly- or macro-cycles. Alkaloids are classified on both the criterion of chemical structure, as well as based on their origin. Thus, the known alkaloids are divided into the following categories: derivatives of pyridine, derivatives of pyrolidine, derivatives of tryptophan, derivatives of quinolone and izoquinolone, derivatives of phenetylamine, indole derivatives, derivatives of purine, terpenes, and derivatives of betaine with quaternary nitrogen.This work presents the structures, location in natural compounds, as well as data pertaining to the extraction, identification, metering, and purification for various compounds, such as coniine, nicotine, atropine and cocaine, morphine and codeine, quinine, papaverine, strychnine, and caffeine.The effects these substances have on human health are highlighted.
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